Monday, July 27, 2020

Oxazepam Use, Side Effects, Cautions, and Withdrawal

Oxazepam Use, Side Effects, Cautions, and Withdrawal Bipolar Disorder Treatment Medications Print How Oxazepam (Serax) Is Used for Anxiety By Marcia Purse Marcia Purse is a mental health writer and bipolar disorder advocate who brings strong research skills and personal experiences to her writing. Learn about our editorial policy Marcia Purse Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Daniel B. Block, MD on January 30, 2020 twitter linkedin Daniel B. Block, MD, is an award-winning, board-certified psychiatrist who operates a private practice in Pennsylvania. Learn about our Medical Review Board Daniel B. Block, MD Updated on February 16, 2020 BSIP/UIG/Getty Images More in Bipolar Disorder Treatment Medications Symptoms Diagnosis In This Article Table of Contents Expand Side Effects Precautions Safety Compared to Other Benzodiazepines During Pregnancy and Nursing Withdrawal View All Back To Top The medication oxazepam (brand name Serax, among others) is used for short-term relief of anxiety, tension, agitation, and irritability. Its also used to treat anxiety associated with depression and alcohol withdrawal and cocaine withdrawal.?? Oxazepam is an older medication, having first been marketed in 1965. Since its been around so long, its available almost exclusively as a generic drugâ€"brand name versions like Serax are difficult or impossible to find. However, the generic versions of the medication should work as well as prescription versions. Oxazepam works slowly compared to other benzodiazepine drugs. Oxazepam is a benzodiazepine. As with all medications in that class of drugs, you can become addicted if you use the drug too frequently or for too long. Benzodiazepines: Addiction and Dependence Side Effects As with all prescription drugs, oxazepam has potential side effects, some of which may be serious. The most common side effect seen with the use of oxazepam is drowsiness or lethargy, especially when you first start to take the medication. If this is too big a problem or lasts for more than a few days, talk to your doctor about reducing your dosage (which almost always solves the problem). Less common side effects of oxazepam include:?? HeadacheTremorSwellingDizziness or lightheadednessVertigo (trouble with balance or the sensation that the room is spinning)Slurred speechNauseaChanges in your sex drive Benzodiazepines Uses, Indications, and Side Effects Precautions When starting oxazepam, you shouldnt drive or perform any other potentially hazardous activities until you know how you will react to the medication (and even then you should practice caution). Combining oxazepam with alcohol, opioid medications, or other substances that depress the central nervous system could result in serious complications, even death due to suppression of the breathing center in the brain.?? How Depressants Affect the Central Nervous System Those with a history of psychosis should not be prescribed oxazepam.?? Likewise, the medication should be avoided in anyone with a history of addictive behavior. An exception, of course, is when the medication is used for alcohol withdrawal symptoms. When oxazepam is used for alcohol, cocaine, or other substance abuse withdrawal, a person should be closely monitored for the duration of the time the medication is used. Benzodiazepines, including oxazepam, should also be avoided entirely in the elderly and in people with dementia.?? Safety Compared to Other Benzodiazepines Oxazepam is significantly safer in terms of toxicity than either Librium (chlordiazepoxide) or Valium (diazepam), two other benzodiazepines.?? Commonly used doses of oxazepam are less likely than equivalent doses of other benzodiazepines to cause dangerous side effects. During Pregnancy and Nursing Because other drugs in the benzodiazepine family have been shown to cause birth defects, you should not take oxazepam while pregnant.?? If you accidentally become pregnant while taking it, talk to your doctor. This medication should be stopped as soon as possible in pregnancy, but due to the possibility of withdrawal, this should only be done under the guidance of your physician. Oxazepam will pass through into your breast milk,?? and therefore should not be used by nursing mothers unless you and your doctor decide the expected benefit of the drug outweighs the risk to the baby. Withdrawal Abrupt discontinuation of oxazepam or any other benzodiazepine, especially after extended therapy, can cause mild to severe withdrawal effects.?? For those who have been using oxazepam for some time, withdrawal can be very serious, and even fatal. Because of this problem, you should try to use the medication for as little time as possible, and discuss with your doctor how to taper your dosage off gradually. Never discontinue the drug suddenly. How Long Do Benzodiazepines Stay in Your System? Bottom Line Oxazepam can be a useful medication for the acute treatment of anxiety or alcohol withdrawal, and since it may have fewer side effects than some of the other benzodiazepines, may be a good choice in certain circumstances. At the same time, its important to understand that benzodiazepines are strong medications with a potential for abuse and serious side effects, both due to the side effects of the drug alone or in combination with other drugs, and due to withdrawal side effects when it is discontinued.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Positivist Theories Of Law And Morality - 1660 Words

Positivist theories of law can be described as â€Å"those who understand the law to be a particular sort of social ordering, a certain kind of social technology by which individuals who live together can coordinate their behaviour and resolve disputes.† Positivist theories also state that there is no necessary connection between law and morality and rejects the idea of a higher law. Classical legal positivism was first founded by Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). Bentham’s aim was to provide an alternative to what he saw as ‘errors of the conventional jurisprudence’ of his time. His ideas were later developed by John Austin, who promoted the ‘Command Theory’ of law. HLA Hart was very much in favour of legal positivism; however, he didn’t agree with some of the concepts outlined by Austin. He analysed the classical theories of positivism, particularly those of Austin and Bentham and attempted to update this view of law. His argument for lega l positivism challenged many of the concepts laid out by the classical theorists. This essay will, therefore, examine Hart’s argument, in favour of legal positivism, look at his analysis of other positivists theories as well as criticisms of his own theory, notably that of Dworkin, and come to a conclusion on whether he provides a persuasive argument in favour of positivism. John Austin’s theory on positivism was one of the main theories in which Hart critiqued in his legal positivism argument. Austin promoted the ‘Command Theory’ of law, withinShow MoreRelatedThe Nature Of People s Beliefs1660 Words   |  7 Pageseven the ideas of the law are exempt from this occurrence. Since the spoken word, hundreds of philosophers have defined law in different ways. Seeing law in different ways people can come to different conclusions about specific cases. The Fugitive Slave Law was a controversial law in American history. The Fugitive Slave Law allowed slave-owners to capture their slaves who have fled North to free states. In United States v Morris, the emancipators challenged the Fugitive Slave Law in Boston. A groupRead MoreThe Case Of Brown V. Board Of Education Of Topeka1694 Words   |  7 Pagesjustified in ruling in the manner they did. So, natural law theorists like St. Thomas Aquinas and John Finnis, legal positivists like H. L. A. H art, and philosopher Ronald Dworkin, while having fundamental differences in their beliefs of what law is, how it is determined, and how cases are adjudicated, would still arrive at the fact that the ruling in Brown v. Board of Education was legally justified. Natural law theory is essentially the belief that law is derived from humans’ unique ability to reasonRead MoreEthics And The Separation Of Law And Morals1257 Words   |  6 Pages Law and morality work together to guide our behavior; while law does it by punishing us if we do something wrong, morality does it through incentives. In their articles, both H.L.A Hart in â€Å"Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morals,† and Lon Fuller’s reply to professor Hart in â€Å"Positivism and Fidelity to Law,† discuss the concept of law post world war II Germany and their re-imagining of natural law as put forth by Gustav Radbruch’s theory. In this paper, I hope to show how both law and moralityRead MoreThe Second World War1598 Words   |  7 Pagesthat they weren’t guilty of a crime as they were obeying the law of Nazi Germany . Consequently, the trial revived the broader question of whether laws which are inherently immoral can be considered valid law. Moreover, the trial generated fresh debate within jurisprudence, in turn leading many to criticise the previously prominent ideas of Legal Positivism , which in layman’s ter ms separated law from morality and credited as valid law any bill provided it had gone through the recognised legislativeRead MoreMorality Vs. Morality : Morality And Morality1729 Words   |  7 PagesAlthough law and morality are two separate issues it is evident that morality plays a crucial role in the law. Dr. Jà ¼rgen Habermas stated â€Å"law is internally related†¦ to morality† . The idea of law is not that it must be moral but that it provides a system to allow people to live together peacefully in a society. However, as much as it is debated, it is apparent that in order for human civilisation to work laws must generally be moral. Natural law is a theory that emphasises the role of morality in theRead MorePositivism : The Ruling Theory Of Law944 Words   |  4 Pages(1790-1859) and HLA Hart (1907-1992). Philosopher Ronald Dworkin once described legal positivism as the ruling theory of law. Since the time of Bentham and Austin legal positivism was the dominant theory and was held by most legal scholars in one way or another and was also the working theory of most legal practitioner’s. Although recognized as a dominating jurisprudential theory with considerable influence on the writings of many legal scholars, positivism has been open to much criticism especiallyRead MoreThe Case Of The Speluncean Explorers1740 Words   |  7 Pagesand Keen J adopt a similar positivist position as Lord Coleridge in Dudley and Stephens; that of a definite separation of law and morality. Contrary to modern theorists such as Fuller and Dworkin, positivists hold the opinion that the properties of the law are exclusive of moral bearing and that laws are both made and enforced by men to regulate social, moral and normative interaction between men, thus leaving no place for individual morality in the execution of the law. Judicial supremacy precludesRead MoreEssay on Justice1493 Words   |  6 Pagesachieve it’. Justice is something that we all want from a Law and believe should be an integral part in any legal system. However, the meaning of Justice is very difficult to define. There are many aspects of justice that we may question about; i.e. is a particular law just? Is the legal system just? Much of the issue of justice is very controversial and raises questions such as whether the combination of Law and system produce a just result? Justice has a definitionRead MoreLegal Positivism : A Positivist Legal System1401 Words   |  6 Pagesis propounded by a Positivist Legal System. The aim of this essay is to evaluate a positivist legal system or legal positivism, by analysing what it means, what it does the positive and negative aspects of legal positivism, how legal positivism works in a society. In order to understand a positivist legal system and how it works in a society, this essay is going to concentrate on some aspects of legal positivism, which are; the definition of legal positivism or positivist legal system, ideologiesRead MoreThe Distinction Between Natural Law And Legal Positivism Essay1747 Words   |  7 Pagesdefine the distinction between natural law and legal positivism. I will make distinctions regarding advantages and disadvantages of the definitions of the theories of natural law and legal positivism. By focussing on slavery as an example I will be looking at various theorists and their theories thereby attempting to make sense and find clarity in this regard. Furthermore to understand the aspects of natural law and legal positivism, one has to understand the theories of Cicero, Thomas Aquinas among others

Saturday, May 9, 2020

The War Of The United States - 885 Words

On the morning of November 9, 1938, â€Å"sturmabteilungen† authorities commissioned by the Nazi regime enforced violent â€Å"pogroms† against Jewish communities. The orchestrated nationwide campaign of street violence across Germany, known as â€Å"Kristallnacht† (Night of the broken glass) lasted only two days but amalgamated the burning of thousands of Jewish homes, synagogues and businesses. The British government persuaded by public opinion and parliament, eased immigration restrictions to allow the passage of ten thousand Jewish refugee children. British authorities agreed to permit children under the age of 17 years old to enter Great Britain, on the basis that they would return home after the violent prosecutions of Jews subsided. Private citizens proposed a disposition, funding would be provided to support the education and personal care of each child emigrant. No one would have predicted the immense influence this transport would make post war. Many of the children would never return to their homeland nor the care of their parents, more importantly they were given a chance to live. In my paper I will explore a lesser-known history of the Holocaust: I will unearth the procedures, policy and experiences of the refugee children to the relief support provided by Britain from 1938 to 1940. Many historians argue that Britain did little to nothing to stop Nazi interference in Germany, and the Kindertransport would ultimately prove to be an insignificant cause. However Britain’sShow MoreRelatedThe War Of The United States1377 Words   |  6 Pagesthe Spanish-American War to the two world wars to the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States has positioned itself to be the world’s superpower. The ability of â€Å"Big Brother† United States to maneuver through land, sea, air, or virtual space makes the U.S. virtually unstoppable. As the world’s policeman, America pays a heavy toll in human life. However, if the United States ceases to fight against human atrocities, who will. Imagine policemen in the United States quitting and we noRead MoreThe War Of The United States1639 Words   |  7 PagesP.6 9 February 2015 Iraq War The United States has intervened in many countries throughout history. Some countries became better off with the help that was given by the United States, while other countries stayed static, or became even worse. The war with Iraq is a great example of the horrors that the United States can create when she decides to mess with other countries. America thought that she knew what was best for Iraq, but America was wrong. The United States should not have gotten involvedRead MoreThe War Of The United States920 Words   |  4 Pagesof The United States, Bill Clinton, stood before a crowd of just about 4000 onlookers and millions more viewing from home. For those in attendance, and around the country, this was a extraordinary day. Memorial Day brings out many emotions for millions of people every year, emotions such as pride, fear, anger, sadness or anxiety. Memories of loved ones gone, a parent one may not have met because he was killed in battle while they were yet to be born, a fellow brother or sister of the United StatesRead MoreThe War Of The United States974 Words   |  4 PagesAlong with troops, the United States was backed by the american war machine, what almost seemed like an endless supply of industry, manufacturing, and the capital for both. This represented the power shift to the other side of the Atlantic. Britain’s financial resources were in a desperate situation, and their unquestionable international supremacy was going along with it. Going into the end of 1941, XXX reflected on this shift on the horizon. â€Å"‘Our War’ had become the world war, in which we were aRead MoreThe War Of The United States1702 Words   |  7 PagesChurchill proclaimed when Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the Lend-Lease Act, giving tens of billions of dollars worth of war materiel and supplies to the enemies of Germany in the Second World War. (Underhill 69). As the democracies of Europe fell to the fascist menace, the USA acted as a f inal bastion against the Axis, fighting an industrial and economic ‘undeclared war’ from the signing of the Lend-Lease Act on March 11, 1941 to the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7 of the same year. TheRead MoreThe War Of The United States1682 Words   |  7 PagesSeptember 11, 2001 al-Qaeda launched a terrorist attack on the United States of America. The attack provoked the United States in retaliation. The U.S. was after al-Qaeda’s leader Osama bin Laden. The Iraq and Afghanistan war became the longest war in United States history. Music was being pumped out left and right from artist to pay their respects to the soldiers, and men and women who lost their lives through the war. The music was made special because no matter what genre of music was producedRead MoreThe United States Of The War1294 Words   |  6 PagesThe United States of America under president Woodrow Wilson was aiming to remain neutral in the war. Instead of directly being involved in th e war, they instead found a way to make a profit off the war, by supplying ammunition to the British Army. Wilson was opposed to the war due to being raised up by an anti-violence minister and didn’t want American progress to halt by joining the war. America’s economic power was greatly increasing during the war due to the ability to trade with all sides andRead MoreThe War Of The United States1450 Words   |  6 PagesEurope was embroiled in the greatest war the world had ever seen. Even after the warring nations nearly exhausted their manpower and resources, no nation clearly grasped victory; however, when United States declared war upon the Central Powers on April 4th, 1917, victory rapidly approached and the Entente Powers achieved that victory on November 11th, 1918. Although, was an American declaration of war actually necessary for an Entente victory? The United States supplied the Entente with an immenseRead MoreThe War Of The United States1554 Words   |   7 Pagesdawn of human existence many have understood the importance of service to one s society. It existed during the early stages of civilization when hunter-gatherers came of age to hunt with the older men of their clan. It also aided in freeing the United States from the tight grip of British tyranny. It was a burden many understood as relevant, but is now seen in an unappealing light. Former president Abraham Lincoln made a statement that the principle of the draft was not new and has been practiced inRead MoreThe War Of The United States1122 Words   |  5 PagesSwimming against a current of pro-war fervor, McKinley stuck to his guns and persisted on remaining diplomatic with the investigation of the Maine explosion still ongoing. This seemed to infuriate the entire nation. Jingoists in congress, yellow journalists and the American public were clamoring for Spanish blood after the Maine, and to them McKinley came across as a feeble leader. McKinley offered one last chance for Spain to avoid war by agreeing to an armistice. He thought that the Spanish would

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Discuss the Influence of Childhood on Adult Relationships Free Essays

Discuss the influence of childhood on adult relationships. (24 Marks) Many attachment psychologists argue that early relationships with our primary caregivers provide the foundation for later adult relationships. Bowlby called this the continuity hypothesis. We will write a custom essay sample on Discuss the Influence of Childhood on Adult Relationships or any similar topic only for you Order Now This is the claim that early relationship experiences continue in later adult relationships. According to the attachment theory, young children develop an ‘internal working model’ from their first relationship with their primary carer. This is then the basis on which they consider what is acceptable in future relationships and whether they are able to trust or rely other individuals (based on preconceptions from previous relationships). Young children also develop characteristic attachment styles in their early relationships which influence later relationships by providing the child with beliefs about themselves, other people and relationships in general. There are several attachment styles that a child can develop in infancy. Ainsworth (1971) divided these into secure, insecure-avoidant and insecure-resistant, when working on her ‘Strange Situation’ research. The characteristics we associate with attachment styles will provide a child with a set of beliefs about themselves and the nature of relationships with others. These attachment styles can be seen as a indicator of the nature of their future adult relationships. For example, someone who is securely attached as a child can expect to have similar relationships throughout life. There is research supporting the influence of childhood on adult relationship, such as the longitudinal study performed by Simpson et al (2007). It was carried out on on a group of individuals from childhood into their twenties. Individuals previously labelled as ‘securely attached’ were more capable of socialising, developed secure friendships and had positive emotional experiences on a regular basis, supporting the hypothesis. This shows that our attachment as children, and our developed internal working model influence our adult relationships greatly. Another study that proves this hypothesis was performed by Hazan and Shaver (1981). They devised a ‘love quiz’ in a local newspaper, asking readers to describe their feelings and experiences about romantic relationships and their childhood relationships with parents. They found a strong correlation between childhood and adult relationship patterns: for example, insecure-avoidant types doubted the existence of love, feared closeness and found it hard to forgive; insecure-resistant types were intensely emotional, jealous and untrusting; and secure types believed in love, were very trusting and liked being close to others. However it is unlikely that our attachment types as children are fixed. Life events, such as divorce of parents or loss of a loved one, can cause a ‘securely attached’ child to become ‘insecure’, therefore it is unrealistic to say that our early relationships determine whether or not we have successful long-lasting relationships. Also, this is a very deterministic view. It suggests that we have no control over the effect our childhood has on our future and that we do not have free will. For example the idea that because a child was abused, when they grow up they ‘will’ become abusers is not only is this untrue, but it plays on the idea that we have no power over who we become. ) Relationships with peers also have an influence on later adult relationships. Peers become more influential as a child progresses into adolescence, playing a significant role in an individual becoming an independent adult, and helping to develop social skills, including those needed for adult relationships. As young people develop into adolescents, they spend less time with parents and family and time with peers increases. They are more likely to experience self disclosure of inner feelings and secrets. Bee (1995) argues that teenagers use their peer group to make the transition from protection from the family to the real world. Interactions help to develop independence where the teen gradually attains separation from their family. This suggests how they develop a level of emotional and physical intimacy different to that to which they have with their parents. However gender differences have been found in childhood relationships. Research has shown that girls experience more intimate peer relations than boys, and often report feelings of care and security in their relationships with other girls. In contrast, boys’ peer relationships are usually more competitive. Therefore, we cannot generalise about the effects of childhood peer interactions as experiences are often very different. Also, many studies of adolescent relationships have relied on small samples from once school or city, usually in the US. A major disadvantage of such samples is that it doesn’t adequately represent relationships in other areas and cultures. Therefore, it is difficult to generalise findings, especially to non-Western cultures. Overall there are many suggestions as to how childhood, (the effects of peer relationships and parent-child relationships,) can affect our future adult relationships, and although there is various evidence supporting this, it is too reductionist to suggest that childhood experiences is the only factor that impacts possible relationships, as there are others such as life events and environmental factors. How to cite Discuss the Influence of Childhood on Adult Relationships, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

To the Memory of Mr. Oldham Essay Example

To the Memory of Mr. Oldham Paper Oldies verse, rough and unrefined, In comparison o Dryness style begs the question, why did Dryden want to pay tribute to a much younger and less accomplished poet? In the first ten lines of the elegy we can see that Dryden attempts to establish the history between the two. Too little and too lately known , shows us that the two authors had Just recently met and Whom began to think to call my own, tells us that John Dryden had started to take a Liking to John Lolled. This fact Is elaborated on by the sentence For sure our souls were near lady: and thing cast in the same poetic mould with mine. Dryden says here hat their souls were really close to each other and they were cast from the same poetic mould. It is interesting on Dryness part to say this when their styles were not so similar, Dryden being artistic and flowing and Oldies style seemingly coarse and less thought through. However, we are told that they did know each other in the first ten lines so we must take another route in determining why Dryden wanted to lament Oldies passing. We will write a custom essay sample on To the Memory of Mr. Oldham specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on To the Memory of Mr. Oldham specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on To the Memory of Mr. Oldham specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In lines nine and ten we see that Dryden may be stating that Lolled was a stepping stone in Dryness studies. Thus Minus fell upon the lippies place, while his young friend performed and won the race. This couplet illuminates Dryness way of thinking. It seems that Dryden learned a little from John Lolled despite his young age, which probably attributes to Dryden liking Lolled, and this spurred Dryden on to new heights, so he relates Oldies death to Missuss fall and Dryden himself is the young friend who wins the race. However, this is not to say that Dryden used Lolled in a negative way. In the legend, Minus was winning the race when he slipped in a pool of blood and fell; he then rolled into the path off avail opponent so that his friend could win the race. So, in essence, he is saying that Lolled helped him to achieve greater heights in writing and fame even though Lolled died, or fell. All this probably attributes to the reason for John Dryden to write the tribute to Lolled, however, the elegy does not stop there. In lines ten through fourteen, Dryden ponders on what older age could have given Lolled In terms of higher thinking and achievement. This part Is sort of a wishful thinking attempt at contemplating what John Lolled would do In older age. Dryden states that age might have given Lolled a refined tongue for his harsh and rugged line. Another answer to the reason Dryden felt Like he owed a tribute to Lolled Is that he may have felt that John Lolled was a man before his time. In lines nineteen and twenty Dryden writes Thy generous fruits, though gathered ere their prime still showed a quickness; and maturing time. This meaning that the fruits of Oldies labor, his poetry and satires, were mature for Lolled. Also, In answer to ten to ten shuttles Dryden en uses ten words allele Ana mould, n s basically comparing himself to Lolled. This is not strange because they have the same birthday, and they both write in satire, Just different styles in satire. When he writes One common note on either lyre did strike and knaves and fools we both abhorred alike, Dryden is comparing both he and Lolled to how musicians are similar when they play the lyre in reference to their poetry. Although, he does criticize Oldies verses in that he says thro the harsh cadence of a rugged line, a noble error, and but seldom made, when poets are by too much force betrayed. He is criticizing Oldies work here saying that his errors are noble and that he himself writes satire in better verses. The piece where he mentions the rugged line probably indicates that Lolled is more preoccupied with the matter that is given rather than the manner in which it is given. This view is expressed more clearly when Dryden writes But mellows what we write to the dull sweets of rhyme. Overall, we see that John Dryden and John Lolled had many things in common. They were both poets, or satirists to be more exact, and they both had the same airhead. Yet Lolled was substantially less famous than Dryden and had accomplished considerably less than him, so this begs the question why did Dryden feel the necessity to write a tribute to him? As we have seen, Dryden feels that he was connected to Lolled, maybe it is that they were both satirists, maybe it is that Lolled castigated wickedness instead of preaching virtue and Dryden found this appealing. Or maybe, Dryden saw Lolled as an equal, not on a literal level, but on a metaphoric, by this I mean that Lolled wrote satires in a way that was before his mime seeing that he was only 30 at the time of his death. It is for this reason, I believe, that Dryden feels he must at least recognize the young writer so that people may not forget what could have been had not smallpox prematurely ended Oldies life. He equates him with Marcella, the son-in-law of the Emperor Augustus. Marcella died at an early age and he was mourned very heavily by the Roman population, and Dryden uses this to pay tribute to Lolled who will more than likely not be mourned widely by the masses.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Understanding Leader Emotional Intelligence and Performance

Understanding Leader Emotional Intelligence and Performance Literature Review The situational leadership style can be used to solve problems on what a leader can do if group members disagree with newly introduced changes (Spector, 2005, p.3). The situational leadership style is based on a combination of task behavior, active listening, relationship behavior, constant interactions, leadership flexibility, and communication to find the best possible solutions to problems (Tang, 2007, p.5).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Understanding Leader Emotional Intelligence and Performance specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, behavioral leadership focuses on the behavioral traits of a leader to stimulate certain behavioral responses by people who are led by the leader to develop quality, dedication to duty, and talent enhancement to stimulate and enhance employee performance (Walker et.al, 1998, p.1). Here, behavior can be conditioned to achieve the anticipated response. P sychologist agree that leadership capabilities of men of old was due to their masculine traits and innate personal qualities which inherently influenced the most effective group (Watson, Hubbard Wiese, 2000, p.2-9). Born leaders are characterized by innate drive, motivation, ambition, self-confidence, creativity, integrity, charisma and flexibility. On the other hand leadership can be promoted, because leadership can be taught (Vrba, 2007, p.3-5). The transactional leadership style defines a leader who focuses on task responsibilities, motivates followers by their own self-interest, strives to fulfill goals based on a system of contingence rewards, and exchanges wages for the work done (Wong Law, 2002, p.2-9). Such leaders lead by reward and punishment, issuance of directives. The leaders are action oriented, think inside the box to solve problems, very passive, and practice management by exception (Sosik Megarian, 1999, p.5). Methodology The methodology used in this study was to gather qualitative data based on a survey, interview, and personality test on Thomas Vo. Thomas was selected to represent the class because of his diverse leadership experience in different settings. Preparations were made early and the interview started at 10:00 am. Surveys were conducted online and questionnaires were administered to the respondents directly. The qualitative research method was used based on the interview which focused on the situational, great man and transactional leadership questionnaires to collect objective answers. The class ensured Thomas provided credible explanations by providing holistic explanations with class’s consensus in the natural setting of the class. The findings could be made transferable because the results could be generalized in any leadership situation based on judgment by the class and the professor, dependable because the results on the interview and the questionnaires on leadership theories could be replicated, and confirmed beca use each member of the class contributed to the findings. The personality test was conducted to identify the critical characteristics of Thomas as a leader draw on psychoanalytic study of introverts and extroverts.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Resource Analysis Results due to the situational leadership questionnaire showed Thomas to a proactively listener to team members’ opinions, and used the results after careful evaluation to maintain and control implementation of decisions if team members disagreed with the action imposed. That was in agreement with Thomas’s statement in the interview where he actively listens keenly to others before making decisions. That was also consistent with the situational leadership theory. In addition, Thomas’s option in the case of a member who tried to skip a meeting by taking a sick leave confirmed that he c ould have to talk with the member and explain the importance of the meeting, a trait consistent with the situational leadership style. Thomas’s response to self-evaluation showed the behavioral leadership style components, which were elements consistently found in the survey, questionnaire, and interview statements. However, not all the elements that define behavioral leadership were present; implying the kind of leadership traits characterizing Thomas’ leadership style is a combination of different leadership theories. The great man’s leadership theory characteristics lacked because the basis of the theory is that leaders are born. Thomas acquired his leadership skills through training and experience, which refuted the presence of the traits of the great man theory. Thomas agreed that he was not born a leader, but made a leader, which implies leadership can be learnt and made. The interview and survey showed that transactional leadership traits were inherent in Thomas, who agrees that bonuses were given to members at the end of the year based on their productivity, a situation that is defined on a reward and punishment basis. Thomas agreed that imposing the maximum penalty corresponding to the severity of a mistake further showed the inherent characteristic of the transactional leadership element. Personality test showed Thomas’s leadership style to combine both extrovert and introvert characteristics. Thomas conducts self-evaluation on a daily basis in the evening after work to identify areas of improvement. Conclusion An analysis based on the evidence from different leadership theories, survey data, interview data, and personality test showed that Thomas to be an extrovert in combination with some introvert personality traits. That was because Thomas alludes to be energetic, reflective, intuitive, talks much, is lively, and is patient. Further analysis of the sources of information revealed Thomas to widely borrow leadership trai ts from different leadership theories.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Understanding Leader Emotional Intelligence and Performance specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Ardichvili, A. Kuchinke, K. P. (2010). Leadership styles and cultural values among managers and subordinates: a comparative study of four countries of the former Soviet Union, Germany, and the US, Human Resource Development International, 5 (1). Sosik, J. J., Megarian, L. E. (1999). Understanding leader emotional intelligence and performance: The role of self-other agreement on transformational leadership perceptions. Group Organization Management, 24, 367-390. Spector, P. (2005). Introduction: Emotional intelligence. Journal of Organizational  Behavior, 26, 409-410. Tang, H. V. (2007). A cross-cultural investigation of academic leaders’ emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness in Taiwan and the United States Unpublished d issertation, Texas AM University–Kingsville and Texas AM University– Corpus Christi. Vrba, M. (2007). Emotional intelligence skills and leadership behavior in a sample of South African first-line managers. Management Dynamics, 16, 25-35. Walker, H. M. et.al. (1998). Macro-Social Validation: Referencing Outcomes in Behavioral Disorders to Societal Issues and Problems, Behavioral Disorders, v24 n1 p7-18 Watson, D, Hubbard, B. Wiese, D. (2000). Self-other agreement in personality and affectivity: The role of acquaintanceship, trait visibility, and assumed similarity.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 546-558. Wong, C. Law, K. S. (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. The Leadership Quarterly,13, 243-274

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Will the New SAT Close the Education Gap

Will the New SAT Close the Education Gap SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Big changes are coming to the SAT this year, and the impact that they will have on students is a topic of fierce debate. Will they provide a leg up to students who are put at a disadvantage by the current test format? Or will they make disparities between the scores of high and low-income students even more pronounced? In this article, I'll go over both sides of the argument and provide my own take on how the changes to the SAT will affect the education gap. What Is the Education Gap, and How Does It Relate to the New SAT? When we talk about the â€Å"education gap," we mean that disparities in income (and race, as a related factor) continue to mirror disparities in access to educational opportunities and overall quality of education for students.Many people have argued that tests like the SAT only serve to widen this gap between poor and wealthy students.It has been proven time and again that higher parental income correlates with higher SAT scores. In making these new changes to the SAT, the College Board aims to combat this issue by creating a test that puts students on an equal playing field regardless of income. The most significant changes that will take place on the new SAT include: the elimination of Sentence Completion questions in the Reading section a shift in focus on the Math section with less geometry questions and more questions dealing with algebra, fractions, and trigonometry grammar questions in the Writing section that reference larger passages rather than individual sentences. There will also be questions on the Reading section that ask students to interpret data in charts and graphs.Overall, questions will be more directly related to real-life scenarios and less confusingly worded. Some with a more cynical view of the changes say that while this is the College Board’s public rationale behind changing the test, its real reason is business-related.Since the ACT is now more popular than the SAT, the College Board is changing the SAT to align more closely with the ACT so that it can reclaim its standardized testing market share.While the College Board says that their changes will combat the education gap by testing what students actually learn in schools and making the test less â€Å"puzzle-like†, some people think that it will either exacerbate existing problems or change nothing about the current system. In the next section, I’ll go over the arguments presented by both sides. My alternate plan for the new SAT: change tactics completely and make the test so puzzle-like that it's actually just a giant jigsaw puzzle. You only get a perfect score if you can finish the puzzle without flipping over the table in frustration because all the sky pieces look the same. Will the New SAT Close the Education Gap? There are valid arguments from each camp on this, and we won't know for sure who is correct until the new SAT has been out for a few years. I'll present both sets of ideas so you can get an idea of the logic behind each point of view. Theory 1: Yes, It Will Close the Education Gap Some people (such as spokespeople for the College Board) argue that the new SAT will remedy many problems that plagued the old testing format. Onemajor difference is that students won’t have to face Sentence Completion questions, which test obscure vocabulary words that students with from disadvantaged backgrounds are less likely to know. The elimination of these questions might allow underprivileged students who have a great deal of potential to score higher on the test. The new version of the SAT will focus on knowledge of the nuances in meaning of more common vocabulary words in the context of larger passages. Arguably, this is a more logical way of testing vocabulary when considering what students will need to know to be prepared for college academics and careers. The College Board is also partnering up with Khan Academy to offer free SAT prep services.They argue that this will allow low-income students to gain access to some of the same advantages that were once only available to wealthy students.They have also streamlined the process for obtaining fee waivers for low-income students. The College Board will provide four automatic college application fee waivers for students who were eligible for fee waivers on the test. The new test will also incorporate questions that are founded in real life scenarios and contain less confusing wording.The new SAT focuses on questions in context rather than in isolation (which is why reading and writing are now all passage-based).This means that students without preexisting knowledge of specific grammar rules or vocabulary words might have the potential to succeed on the test if they can infer wisely from the context of a question. This new formatting also means that there are less learnable â€Å"tricks† on the test that could trip up students who don’t have the opportunity to use test prep services. Students who aren’t familiar with the format of SAT questions will be put at less of a disadvantage.The more predictable content on the new test in the form of specifically outlined passage subject matter will give students a better idea of what to expect even if they haven’t been able to prepare extensively for the test. Yeah! No education gap! Party! Theory 2: No, It Won't Solve the Problem of the Education Gap (and Might Make It Worse) Others have argued that the new SAT will exacerbate existing problems with the test and widen the education gap.The College Board says that the new SAT will level the playing field by testing what students actually learn in schools, but this new testing format could make existing differences in high school quality all the more obvious in score results. The purpose of the SAT is to provide a common metric to measure student academic ability apart from the subjective determinations of each high school.If the new SAT tests what students have learned in school more directly, won’t that just lead to more disadvantages for low-income students who attend poorly resourced public high schools? Although questions on the new SAT will focus more on interpreting meaning in context rather than vocabulary and grammar skills in isolation, this probably won’t eliminate an advantage for wealthier students who attended better high schools.These students’ inference skills and knowledge of how to interpret arguments and words in context will be better developed through a higher quality education.Also, the fact that the new essay asks students to analyze the author’s argument rather than formulate their own opinions means that low income students might be put at more of a disadvantage if they haven’t been given proper instruction on how to read analytically in their high school classes. Even though the SAT will now offer fee waivers to all low-income students and is partnering up with Khan Academy to offer free test prep for all students, this doesn’t mean that wealthy students will lose their advantages.The fact that free test prep is being offered means that it's still possible to prepare for the test.With the new test, a market for specialized test prep services that are more individually tailored and more expensive will continue to exist. Wealthy students will still have the potential to access advanced test preparation services and potentially be able to improve their scores more drastically than students who only have access to free materials. All this could potentially lead to increased inequality in the college admissions process as a result of greater differences in scores. Low-income students may be put at an increased disadvantage on the new test due to a lower quality education overall, creating even greater class divisions in terms of access to higher education and career opportunities. I don't know what this guy is so upset about; he gets to wear a silly hat while we all sit here contemplating the flaws in the American educational system (presumably while either hatless or wearing comparatively boring and joyless hats). SMH. Conclusion Now that we’ve heard both sides, what’s the verdict?It’s hard to tell because we don’t have reliable score data on the new SAT yet. In my opinion, there are compelling arguments made by both sides of the debate.I think that the changes to the SAT will have a minimal impact on the education gap that currently exists between high and low-income students.It’s great that the College Board is committing to offering free prep services and fee waivers for low-income students, but as long as it’s possible to prep for the test, there will be a market for prep services that cost more and provide better results. It is reasonable to argue that making the test more straightforwardcould help put lower income students at less of a disadvantage, but sometimes I have to wonder if this is a case of a â€Å"race to the bottom† in the standardized testing market. The SAT is trying to compete with the ACT to offer the "fairest" testing model, but in doing so they may be compromising the test's value as an assessment of academic ability. Since it’s too hard to actually improve the quality of the educational system, companies are creating less challenging tests to make everyone feel better about these basic inequalities. Students who go to good high schools and come from wealthier backgrounds will most likely earn higher scores on the SAT regardless of how unbiased the format of the test is. It’s possible that everyone will get slightly higher scores on the new SAT, but the income gap will remain the same. Until we commit to combating the root of the problem - poorly funded high schools with overwhelmedteachers- on a large scale, I don’t see the education gap changing much,regardless of the introduction of the new SAT. What's Next? Wondering what your SAT scores might mean for your future? Check out this article that goes into detail on whether SAT scores can predict success. What do your SAT scores say about you? Find out what your SAT scores actually measure. Are you unsure of whether you should take the new SAT or the ACT this upcoming year? Read more about which students should take which test. Want to improve your SAT score by 240 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: